• Watershed and Stormwater Management

    Investigations, management planning, and TMDL implementation

    HydroAnalysis, Inc is a small environmental consulting firm specializing in conducting high-quality water resources investigations and providing clear and compelling communication.

  • Surface Water Quality and Hydrology

    Protect and restore surface water

    HydroAnalysis, Inc is a small environmental consulting firm specializing in conducting high-quality water resources investigations and providing clear and compelling communication.

  • Groundwater

    Thoughtful application of modeling to water supply and contaminant transport

    HydroAnalysis, Inc is a small environmental consulting firm specializing in conducting high-quality water resources investigations and providing clear and compelling communication.


Surface Water Quality and Hydrology

  • Water quality and hydrologic data collection and analysis
  • Hydrologic and water quality modeling
  • Characterization of adverse impacts of pollutants
  • Climate change and flood modeling and analysis
  • Water withdrawal and low-flow impact analysis

Watershed and Stormwater Management

  • Pollutant source identification and quantification
  • Stormwater BMP and drainage system modeling and design
  • Land cover and pollutant loading modeling and analysis
  • TMDL and watershed management plan development and implementation
  • Hydraulic system modeling and water hammer analysis

Groundwater Investigations

  • Groundwater flow and transport modeling
  • Groundwater discharge permits
  • Peer review
  • Water supply siting
  • Site characterization
  • Expert testimony

Waste Site Consultation

  • Site analysis
  • Contaminant transport modeling
  • Analysis of remedial actions
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Surface Water Quality

Androscoggin River Gulf Island Pond TMDL, Maine

Hydrologic and water quality modeling; TMDL-related technical support

HAI worked for Maine DEP to support hydrologic and water quality modeling and analysis of the Androscoggin River and Gulf Island Pond focused on simulating dissolved oxygen and phosphorus concentrations. This model application used the U.S. EPA QUAL2E computer program and a customized version of the U.S. EPA WASP computer program that was developed by HydroAnalysis. These models provided the technical basis for DEP to permit wastewater discharges to comply with the TMDL. HydroAnalysis established a strong working relationship with Maine DEP staff and has subsequently provided on-call modeling technical support related to several other Maine river studies.

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Water and Climate Adaptation Plan for the Sava River Basin

Climate change analysis; adaptation planning; hydrologic and water quality data analysis

Dr. Peter Shanahan of HydroAnalysis served as a member of a three-person international team to prepare a preliminary Water and Climate Adaptation Plan for the Sava River Basin for The World Bank. The Sava River Basin lies in the countries of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Albania. Dr. Shanahan reviewed prior hydrologic and water-quality studies of the basin and assessed existing models of basin hydrology and water quality. He used available data to analyze potential changes to river flow-duration and water quality under a variety of climate change scenarios. He also assessed potential impacts on ground water. The study results were reported in several oral presentations and a final report.

Pocotaligo River (SC) Water Quality Investigation

Hydrologic and water quality field data collection and modeling; low-flow impact analysis

HAI designed and conducted a hydrologic and water quality field investigation and modeling analysis on the Pocotaligo River. The investigation is focused on determining the potential impact of wastewater treatment plant effluent on ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations in the river under low-flow summertime conditions. HAI coordinated with South Carolina DHEC, developed a quality assurance project plan (QAPP) and conducted a field investigation featuring long-term streamflow monitoring, dye studies, in-situ water quality measurement, and grab sampling for laboratory analysis of water quality. The modeling analysis featured hydrologic and water quality simulation focused on critical summertime, low-flow, high water temperature conditions. This project was conducted in coordination with the regulatory agency to ensure that the resulting river conditions are in compliance with water quality standards.

Hydrologic Analysis of Hickory Hills Lake (MA)

Hydrologic modeling; flood modeling and analysis

Working for the Hickory Hills Landowners association, HydroAnalysis developed and applied a hydrologic model and developed standard operating rules for an earthen dam on a 350-acre lake in central Massachusetts. The client sought to maximize water level during the summertime recreational period while minimizing the potential for emergency flood releases. A hydrologic model of the lake hydrology was developed to predict the historical water-level elevation and lake outflow. The model was applied to analyze lake characteristics under various alternative operating policies. A volume-elevation curve was developed for use in routing daily flows through the lake. HAI provided recommended dam operating protocols based on the performance predicted by the hydrologic model.

Fox River (WI) PCB Fate and Transport Analysis

Hydrologic and toxic water quality modeling analysis; contaminated sediment fate and transport modeling

HydroAnalysis conducted modeling to support evaluation of PCB fate and transport in the Fox River. HAI modified and applied a version of the ECOM-siz-SEDZL model to simulate river hydrodynamics, sediment deposition, and sediment re-suspension. HydroAnalysis completed simulations of PCB fate and transport under alternative discharge histories for papermill wastewaters. HAI also analyzed the potential effects of the Lake Michigan seiche (a standing wave phenomenon) on transport in the river. Historical flow records were analyzed and used to predict the probability of different seiche excursion distances and associated PCB transport.

Connecticut River Thermal Impact Analysis

Hydrologic and thermal modeling analysis; low-flow impact analysis; fisheries impact analysis

For the Connecticut River Watershed Council, HAI conducted a review and analysis of the thermal impacts of a major power plant on ambient water temperature in the Connecticut River. This project featured modeling review, analysis of large sets of water temperature data, and analysis of river flow and temperature in the Connecticut River from Vermont to Long Island Sound. Dr. Peter Shanahan subsequently testified before the Vermont Public Service Board on the matter of relicensing the power station.

Lyle Creek and McLin Creek (NC) Water Quality Modeling and Analysis

Hydrologic and water quality field data collection and modeling; low-flow impact analysis

HAI developed and applied the hydrologic and water quality model QUAL2K to simulate ambient dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand in two North Carolina streams. HAI developed a study plan, coordinated with North Carolina DENR staff, and conducted the modeling analysis in a cost-effective manner. The analysis featured simulation of summertime low-flow conditions in the river system and predicted ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations. Various river flow and wasteload allocation scenarios were evaluated to ensure that water quality standards were met, even under worst-case summertime conditions. The HAI modeling analysis demonstrated minimal impact from the wastewater treatment plant discharges and helped secure reasonable NPDES permits for two small municipalities.

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Coastal Flooding Analysis, Marshfield, Massachusetts

Flood modeling; hydrologic data analysis

HydroAnalysis conducted an assessment of coastal flooding potential in the Green Harbor River polder, a low-lying area separated from the ocean by a dike. HAI research past flood insurance studies, completed a GIS-based analysis of potential flooding volumes, and presented findings to the local conservation commission.

Watershed and Stormwater Management

Bacteria Source Tracking Projects

Hydrologic and water quality field data collection; watershed planning

HAI’s Emily DiFranco has designed and conducted dozens of bacteria source tracking projects throughout New England and is considered a regional expert in these types of analyses. Ms. DiFranco has worked with multiple municipalities to address their bacteria impairments, beach closures, and shellfish bed closures through the design and implementation of iterative projects that have included water quality analyses, smoke and dye testing, canine detection, and watershed surveys, among others. Ms. DiFranco provides clear and concise summary reports and works with communities to develop next steps for remediation.

Evaluation of Nonpoint Source (NPS) BMP Tracking Systems for Long Island Sound

Stormwater BMPs; land cover and pollutant loading analysis; TMDL implementation

As a partner in WaterVision, HydroAnalysis evaluated BMP tracking tools for the Long Island Sound (LIS) Program and the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control. The evaluation study was designed to support TMDL implementation tracking throughout the LIS watershed and featured an assessment of tracking system needs, a review of available tracking systems, and a screening process to match potentially suitable tracking systems with LIS needs. WaterVision worked with stakeholders to identify and design a system to quantitatively track NPS nitrogen BMP reductions throughout the five-state LIS watershed area. WaterVision developed the selected tracking system to be implemented in a cost-effective, incremental manner that is consistent with available funding.

Fitchburg (MA) Combined Sewer and Stormwater System Modeling and Analysis

Hydraulic system modeling and analysis; CSO modeling

HydroAnalysis developed and applied a model to support analysis of the City of Fitchburg’s combined sewer overflow (CSO) system. Fitchburg’s combined sewer system collects both sanitary sewage and stormwater runoff and occasionally discharges overflows during large storm events, polluting receiving waters. The purpose of the modeling and analysis was to improve CSO control and support restoration of the adjacent Nashua River. HAI applied the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to model the Fitchburg sewer system by simulating the runoff of rainfall from the land surface and into the combined sewer system, and the subsequent flow of combined sewerage within the sewer system pipe network (over 20 miles in length). HydroAnalysis developed, calibrated, and applied the Fitchburg sewer system model in coordination with the City of Fitchburg and under oversight of EPA Region I and Mass DEP.

Providence (RI) Green Infrastructure Education and Outreach Project

Stormwater BMP design; land cover and pollutant loading analysis

As a partner in WaterVision, HydroAnalysis supported design and construction of a high-profile green infrastructure/low-impact development (GI/LID) project in the City of Providence for EPA Region 1 and Rhode Island DEM. In 2014, the WaterVision team met with local stakeholders, worked collaboratively with RIDEM and EPA staff, and efficiently designed and constructed a Green Infrastructure project for Providence. The project is an urban GI retrofit featuring construction of a bio-infiltration basin that disconnects over 5 acres of impervious urban area that had previously been piped directly to Mashapoag Pond, an impaired urban pond. WaterVision also worked with stakeholders to design and construct an information kiosk and discovery walking path to enhance education and outreach.

Massachusetts Estuaries Program (MEP) Linked Watershed Embayment Model – Peer Review

Hydrologic and water quality modeling review; pollutant load modeling; TMDL review

HydroAnalysis’ Dr. Peter Shanahan served on a panel conducting an independent, scientific review of the MEP Linked Watershed Embayment Model. The panel conducted two workshops, reviewed literature, and produced a report summarizing the peer review. The MEP model is a key component of a large number of nutrient TMDLs in the Cape Cod and Buzzards Bay region. The panel reviewed MEP’s overall approach, groundwater modeling, nitrogen load estimation, groundwater-surface water interaction, septic system loading, estuarine hydrodynamics and water quality, and other components. Dr. Shanahan contributed to the scientific peer review panel report, submitted in December 2011, and received high praise for his expertise and collaborative approach.

NPS Phosphorus TMDL Development for Vermont

Watershed modeling; data analysis; TMDL development

As a partner in WaterVision, HydroAnalysis is supporting NPS phosphorus TMDL development in 16 agriculturally or urban-impaired watersheds for EPA Region 1 and Vermont DEC. WaterVision is conducting a series of modeling analyses and database management tasks to determine annual phosphorus loads in the 16 impaired watersheds and over 20 attainment watersheds. WaterVision is working closely with VT DEC and EPA staff to accurately apply land use, slope, and soil type information to estimate annual phosphorus loads. To support watershed assessment, TMDL development, and implementation planning, WaterVision is developing GIS-based maps, watershed data tables, and narratives describing watershed conditions. This project is ongoing and will result in 16 completed TMDLs with implementation plans to support watershed restoration.

Water Distribution System Hydraulic and Water Quality Modeling Analysis

Hydraulic system modeling; water distribution system evaluation

HydroAnalysis developed and applied a water distribution system model to evaluate integrating two adjacent water distribution systems. HAI collected information on characteristics of storage, transmission, and pump station infrastructure and constructed a numerical model of the existing system and the proposed improvements. The water distribution system improvements were design to improve system reliability, increase storage, and improve water quality. HAI also proposed an additional service area to reduce existing water pressures that, at times, exceeded pressures cited in plumbing code and standard design criteria. HAI developed and presented multiple scenarios for use of the new water supply system to Northbridge Selectmen.

Stormwater Analyses and Designs, Massachusetts

Stormwater BMP design; hydrologic modeling and analysis

HydroAnalysis has used the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service TR-20 storm hydrograph model to analyze the potential stormwater impacts of proposed residential and commercial developments in a number of Massachusetts communities and to design numerous types of stormwater BMPs to limit runoff to pre-construction conditions.

Cape Cod Nitrogen-Removal BMP Design and Construction

Stormwater BMP design; land cover and pollutant loading analysis; TMDL implementation

As a partner in WaterVision, HydroAnalysis is currently supporting design and construction of two innovative nitrogen-removal stormwater BMP projects in Barnstable and Chatham on Cape Cod for EPA Region 1. WaterVision is conducting a technical review of available BMP methods for nitrogen removal, meeting with municipal leaders, conducting site-surveys, and designing two stormwater BMPs for nitrogen removal. This project is a featured component of Southeast New England Coastal Watershed Restoration Program and is designed to demonstrate innovative methods for solving nitrogen impairment problems on Cape Cod.

Ground Water

Ground-Water Impact Assessments, Massachusetts

HydroAnalysis performed ground-water flow and water-quality analyses to determine the potential impact of on-site wastewater disposal systems on water-table mounding and ground-water quality. Potential effects on nearby municipal supply wells were evaluated for several facilities, including proposed housing, waste-to-energy, and commercial developments. Clients: Public and private clients through subcontracts with engineering firms.

Ground-Water Software

HydroAnalysis developed a graphics-oriented software system for ground-water flow and transport models. The software allows the user to process input and output data through easily-used command menus and graphical data displays. Client: Nassau County, NY through consulting agreement with Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc.

Expert Testimony on Ground-Water Impacts of Proposed Landfill, Rhode Island

HydroAnalysis presented expert testimony on issues of ground-water quality and contaminant transport in Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management hearings regarding the application of Birchwood Realty to construct a sanitary landfill. Client: Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management through consulting agreement with environmental consulting firm.

Impact Assessments and Mitigation Planning, Shirley, Massachusetts

HydroAnalysis characterized site ground-water hydrology, assessed potential impacts on ground-water quality, and developed a ground-water monitoring plan for the proposed Montachusetts Regional Recycling Facility in Shirley, MA Stormwater controls and ground-water recharge systems were designed to mitigate impacts of this proposed trash-to-energy and recycling facility. Client: CSI Resource Systems, Inc. through a subcontract with The BSC Group.

Delineation of Aquifer Protection Zone II, Massachusetts

HydroAnalysis has developed ground-water flow models and delineated aquifer protection Zone II for the towns of Acton, Bridgewater, Chelmsford, Grafton, Groton, Lunenburg, Norfolk, North Sagamore, Norton, Plainville, Raynham, Sterling, Swansea, Westfield, and Westford, Massachusetts. We have completed over 27 Zone II studies. The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Division of Water Supply defines Zone II as the area of an aquifer that contributes ground water to a public supply well under severe pumping and recharge conditions. The Division has established guidelines for determination of Zone II and must approve all Zone II delineations. Zone II delineations by HydroAnalysis have all been approved.

Some of the Zone II studies completed by HydroAnalysis have used an analytical model based on the equations for uniform ground-water flow. The model, which was developed by HydroAnalysis, solves the equations for uniform ground-water flow to predict the ground-water flow stream lines and the capture zone that flows to one or more wells under a uniform sloped hydraulic gradient. The Zone II is delineated by extending the lateral limits of the capture zone upgradient until a hydrologic boundary such as a flow divide or impermeable boundary is encountered.

Zone II delineations in larger areas or in areas of complicated geology or hydrology have been completed using the U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW ground-water flow model. The Zone II studies for Acton, Lunenburg, North Sagamore, Norfolk, Raynham, Swansea, Westfield, Bridgewater, and a Chelmsford town-wide model have been completed using MODFLOW.

These projects have all been conducted as subcontracts to Dufresne-Henry, Inc.

Ground-Water Quality Modeling of Former MGP Site

HydroAnalysis developed a ground-water flow and contaminant transport model of the Baltimore, Maryland area in order to evaluate potential effects of ground-water contaminants from the site of the former BG&E Spring Gardens manufactured gas plant site. The U.S. Geological Survey Method of Characteristics (MOC) model was used to simulate ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the confined Patuxent aquifer.

Because the Patuxent aquifer has experienced varying degrees of industrial pumping during the late 19th and 20th centuries, a transient model of the period from 1850 to the present was formulated. The model was calibrated to extensive water-level data sets from 1945 and 1982 as well as to near-site measurements in 1993. The contaminant transport portion of the model was calibrated to historical measurements of chloride introduced by pumping-induced salinity intrusion. Numerous sensitivity simulations were also completed. The model development effort was completed with the assistance of a university reviewer.

The mass transport component of MOC was used to make predictions of potential contaminant plume movement for a variety of scenarios. For these, the MOC model was modified by HydroAnalysis to predict the extent of off-site Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) transport. These modifications considered the balance of gravity and hydrodynamic forces on DNAPL, which has been found several thousand feet off-site. The model was also configured to consider off-site DNAPL as a secondary source to the dissolved phase plume. The plume predictions are being used to demonstrate to the state regulatory agency the possible extent of contamination under worst-case scenarios.

The project was completed for Baltimore Gas & Electric Company through a subcontract to EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.

Technical Evaluation of Ashumet and Johns Pond

Under funding provided by a U.S. EPA Superfund Technical Assistance Grant, HydroAnalysis has advised the Ashumet Valley Property Owners Association concerning the nearby Massachusetts Military Reservation Superfund Site. Two separate phases have been undertaken.

HydroAnalysis provided a critical review of the potential effects of a plume of sewage-contaminated ground-water on the water quality and eutrophication potential of Ashumet Pond in Falmouth and Mashpee. The study entailed collection of numerous previous studies, a critical review of the available data, and evaluation of water-quality trends over time in Ashumet Pond. A unique aspect of the study is that it concerned the transport in ground-water of high concentrations of phosphorus, a pollutant not usually mobile in the subsurface. The study results were prepared in a written report and presented at a public meeting in Mashpee.

In a second phase of the project, HydroAnalysis reviewed Superfund studies and provided advice to the citizens on the potential effects of other ground-water plumes on Ashumet and Johns Ponds. The plumes in question in this phase of the study are contaminated by organic chemicals and other toxic pollutants. At issue are the potential effects in terms of ecological and human-health risk.

The project was completed for the Ashumet Valley Property Owners Association, a local homeowners group that had been awarded an EPA Superfund Technical Assistance Grant. Phase II of the project was completed with Menzie-Cura and Associates as a subcontractor.

Ground-Water Supply Evaluation and Environmental Permitting, Natural Gas Project, New York

HydroAnalysis provided consulting services to the developer of a proposed $80 million project to construct and operate subsurface caverns for the storage of natural gas. The gas storage caverns were proposed to be constructed by solution mining in salt formations at a depth of 3,900 feet. Planned storage capacity was 5 billion cubic feet of compressed gas. Eventually, the project was not completed due to unfavorable geology for disposal of brine from the solution mining.

Solution mining was expected to require up to 3 millions gallons per day of water and therefore the availability of adequate water supply was a key factor in the feasibility of the project. Early in the project planning, HydroAnalysis evaluated the supply potential of the valley-fill aquifer at this upper New York State location. Our analyses showed that ample water was present.

As the project proceeded, HydroAnalysis continued to provide consulting services during ground-water exploration, permit preparation, and project financing. Peter Shanahan of HydroAnalysis described the hydrologic aspects of the project in presentations to the local public and represented the client in negotiations with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. We completed numerous analyses of historical hydrologic data in order to evaluate alternative permit condition limitations on the withdrawal of water. These analyses included simulations based on historical streamflow records as well as statistical analyses of hydrologic and meteorologic data.

The project was completed for the Avoca Natural Gas Storage Project and J. Makowski Associates, Inc. of Boston.

Ground-Water Characterization for Low-Level Radioactive WasteDisposal Site, Martinsville, Illinois

HydroAnalysis directed the hydrologic characterization of the Martinsville Alternative Site in Clark County, Illinois, which was considered as a possible future site of the State of Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. Peter Shanahan of HydroAnalysis served as Principal Hydrologist for the site characterization. In this role he prepared the hydrologic sections of the site investigations report, provided technical guidance for field studies, analyzed field data, developed the conceptual model of the ground-water system, and supervised ground-water computer modeling. Dr. Shanahan presented and defended the site characterization in 50 hours of expert testimony at hearings before the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Siting Commission. In addition, he presented study results to the public and press, and testified before a subcommittee of the Illinois State Senate.

Site characterization studies were conducted for the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety through a subcontract to the Battelle Memorial Institute. The site characterization was based on extensive ground-water field studies and analysis. The field studies, which were conducted by other subcontractors to Battelle, included installing and monitoring 169 piezometers, and conducting three aquifer tests, nearly 200 slug tests, hundreds of laboratory tests of soil physical properties, an extensive geochemical program, and tritium and carbon-14 isotope analyses. HydroAnalysis analyzed and interpreted the resulting data, developed a conceptual model of the site hydrologic system, and supervised the development of a mathematical computer model to confirm and refine the conceptual model. Mathematical analyses completed by HydroAnalysis included time series and frequency analysis of continuous ground-water elevation and meteorological data, estimation of ground-water travel time and mixing, and determination of hydrologic budgets for the site. As a part of the project, HydroAnalysis developed computer programs for computing water budgets from the U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW ground-water flow model.

The project was completed for the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety through a subcontract with the Battelle Memorial Institute.

Waste Site Consultation

Modeling of Alternative Lagoon Closure Plans at Oil Refineries, Illinois and Missouri

HydroAnalysis developed and applied ground-water contaminant transport models to evaluate the environmental risks associated with alternative closure plans for inactive oil wastewater and sludge lagoons. Clients: Major oil companies through subcontract with Charles A. Menzie & Associates.

Modeling of Manufactured Gas Plant Sites, Michigan, Indiana and New Hampshire

HydroAnalysis assisted in the development of site investigation work plans and site data analysis for former MGP sites. A two-dimensional vertical model of ground-water contaminant transport for the site and near-site area was developed to evaluate the potential transport of dissolved-phase constituents. Client: Utility clients through subcontracts with engineering firms.

Ground-Water Extraction and Treatment Systems, Petroleum Pipelines

HydroAnalysis has designed interception wells for capture and control of contaminated ground water at oil pipeline terminals in NJ, SC, and NC. A ground-water streamline and capture zone model developed by HydroAnalysis was used to determine the location, pumping rates, and design of ground-water extraction wells. Client: Major oil pipeline company through subcontracts with The Paulding Company.

Site Assessment, Gasoline Service Station, Wilmington, Massachusetts

HydroAnalysis was retained as a consultant to “trouble-shoot” a gasoline service station site investigation complicated by the presence of chlorinated organic chemicals. Dr. Shanahan analyzed the available data, developed a conceptual model that attributed the chlorinated solvents to an off-site source, and designed a field sampling program utilizing drive-point sample technology to confirm the conceptual model. The result was a successful demonstration to the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection that an off-site source was responsible for the solvent contamination. Client: Major oil company through subcontract with dsEnvironmental, Inc.

Expert Consulting for Litigation, Verona Wells Superfund Site, Michigan

HydroAnalysis provided attorney with technical review and interpretation on issues related to ground-water flow and water quality at contaminated municipal supply wells. HydroAnalysis provided technical analysis of the extent and character of ground-water contamination and historical contaminant travel times and directions. Client: Law Firm

Ground-Water Remedial Action, Woburn Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts

HydroAnalysis directed the ground-water-related aspects of a Superfund Remedial Action/Remedial Design (RD/RA) for a portion of the Woburn Wells G & H Superfund site in Woburn, MA. The work was conducted on behalf of the private landowner under supervision by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The site was historically contaminated by unauthorized disposal of a variety of materials, primarily trichloroethylene and other volatile compounds. Site investigations have shown that trichloroethylene is present as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in the site bedrock.

  • Preparation of the ground-water-related portions of the work plan for the site pre-design investigation.
  • Analysis and interpretation of ground-water elevation and quality data and preparation of the ground-water-related portions of the pre-design investigation report.
  • Pilot testing of air sparging and pump-and-treat systems as part of development of a site ground-water remedial action.
  • Development of an aquifer test plan for the bedrock aquifer and subsequent analysis and modeling of aquifer test data.
  • Negotiation of plans and procedures with the U.S. EPA and Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection.
  • Development of the ground-water-related portions of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study(RI/FS) for neighboring land parcels.

The project was completed in cooperation with Retec, Inc.

Remedial Action Modeling, Koppers Superfund Site, Galesburg, Illinois

HydroAnalysis developed and applied a model of contaminant transport for use in comparing alternative remedial actions for contaminated soil at this active wood-treating operation. Contaminants at the site include the wood preservatives pentachlorophenol and creosote.

The study examined the interrelationship between the contaminated soils at the site surface and the ground water flowing beneath. Long-term transport of pentachlorophenol and selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons was examined using computer models. HydroAnalysis developed a model based on chemical-equilibrium relationships to predict how infiltrating water would leach chemicals from contaminated soils. The results of the soil leaching calculations were then used as input to a ground-water transport model that predicted the subsequent transport of the chemicals in ground water. The predictions were presented as graphs of contaminant concentrations in ground water at the downgradient facility boundary as a function of future time. The model results illustrated the comparative effectiveness of alternative soil remedial actions in preventing or reducing ground-water contamination.

HydroAnalysis presented the study results to the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency as a part of negotiations between our client and the agency regarding the site remedy. The method of analysis and results were also described in a study report.

HydroAnalysis prepared a plan for investigation of potential asbestos contamination of ground water and contributed to plans for investigating creosote DNAPL, conducting an aquifer study using interception trenches, and for pilot-testing ground-water remediation alternatives. We completed an analysis of ground water flow and aquifer properties based on the trench pumping test.

The project clients are Burlington Northern Railroad and Beazer through a subcontract to ThermoRetec, Inc.


Our client list speaks volumes.

Industrial Clients

  • Avoca Natural Gas Storage
  • BP Oil Company
  • Chem-Nuclear Systems
  • Crum & Forster
  • Dow Chemical Corporation
  • Ocean State Power
  • Potlatch Corporation
  • U.S. Generating

Engineering and Consulting Firms

  • AATA International
  • AMEC Earth & Environmental
  • Battelle
  • Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff
  • BSC Group
  • Camp, Dresser & McKee
  • dsEnvironmental, Inc.
  • Dufresne-Henry, Inc.
  • ENSR Corporation
  • EA Engineering, Science & Technology
  • The Geotechnical Group
  • Gradient Corporation
  • HydroQual Inc.
  • International Gas Consultants, Inc.
  • Menzie-Cura & Associates, Inc.
  • Retec
  • Risk Assessment Corporation
  • Simpson, Gumpertz and Hager
  • TRC Inc.
  • Quantitative Environmental Analysis, Inc.


  • Arlington, MA Planning Department
  • Carlisle, MA Conservation Commission
  • Dover, MA
  • Hampton, NH Water Works
  • BSC Group
  • Lunenburg, MA Conservation Commission
  • Norfolk, MA
  • North Chelmsford, MA Water District
  • Sherborn, MA
  • West Bridgewater, MA Water Department
  • Westford, MA

Law Firms

  • Bingham, Dana, Boston
  • Brown & James, St. Louis
  • Christie, Pabarue, Mortensen & Young, Philadelphia
  • Coburn & Croft, St. Louis
  • Cozen & O'Connor, Seattle
  • Cusack & Knowles, Seattle
  • Forsberg & Umlauf, Seattle
  • Haskell & Perrin, Chicago
  • Lord, Bissell & Brook, Chicago
  • Melito & Adolfsen, New York
  • Miller, Cassidy, Larocca & Lewin, Washington
  • Palmer & Dodge, Boston
  • Tolley, Fisher & Verwys, Battle Creek
  • Warner & Stackpole, Boston

Other Clients

  • Ashumet Valley TAG Coalition
  • Maine Department of Environmental Protection
  • Rhode Island Dept. of Environmental Management
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • The World Bank


Data Visualization for Every Desktop

Originally written in 2002 as a tool for internal use at HydroAnalysis, the reaction of clients and other consultants made it clear that there was a outstanding need for a comprehensive and affordable data analysis tool tuned to the needs of environmental scientists and engineers working on hydrogeologic projects. Driven by continued internal use and testing and feedback from clients, the EnviroInsite feature set has grown rapidly as we continue to follow technical trends to make the program available to more people and easier to use than ever.

Get more information at EnviroInsite.

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About Us

Key staff members.

Team 1

Peter Shanahan

Dr. Peter Shanahan, P.E., is the founder and principal of HydroAnalysis. He has completed a wide variety of projects involving analysis and computer modeling of environmental water quality, hydrology, hydraulics, and hazardous material fate and transport. Dr. Shanahan is also an experienced expert witness and has represented clients in courtroom testimony, administrative hearings, negotiations with regulatory agencies, and public meetings.


1982: Ph.D. Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1974: M.S. Environmental Earth Sciences, Stanford University

1973: B.S. Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1973: B.S. Earth and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Professional History

1988-date: HydroAnalysis, Inc.

1996-date: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1981-1988: ERT, Inc. (now ENSR Corporation)

1980: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria

1978-1981: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1976-1979: Resource Analysis, Inc./Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc.

1974-1976: Bechtel, Inc.


Fellow, American Society of Civil Engineers (Committee on Hydrologic Transport and Dispersion, Chairman 1989-1990)

Water Environment Federation (Committee on Research, 1986-1992)

Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers (Editorial Board, Journal of Groundwater, 1990-1992)

American Geophysical Union

International Association on Water Quality (Task Group on River Water Quality Modeling, 1996-present)

American Water Resources Association

North American Lake Management Society

Conservation Commission, Acton, MA, 1990-1996


Professional Engineer (Massachusetts, Maine)

Representative Experience

Dr. Shanahan has directed or been a major contributor to a wide variety of projects involving analysis and computer modeling of environmental water quality, hydrology, and hydraulics. These studies included engineering analysis and design of water- pollution controls, hazardous waste site remedial actions, flooding and drainage controls, and water-resources development. Dr. Shanahan is an experienced expert witness and has represented clients in courtroom testimony, administrative hearings, negotiations with regulatory agencies, and public meetings. Dr. Shanahan is currently a part-time lecturer in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, serving as co-leader of the Master of Engineering Program project course.

Shanahan, P., “A Groundwater Model Used to Sense Subsurface Geology in an Alluvial Basin near Tombstone, Arizona,” M.S. Report, Department of Applied Earth Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, June 1974.

Harleman, D.R.F., E. E. Adams and P. Shanahan, “Field Verification of a Stratified Cooling Pond Model,” Proceedings of the VXIII Congress, International Association for Hydraulic Research, Cagliari, Italy, Volume 4, pages 309-316, September 1979.

Shanahan, P. and B. M. Harley, “Graphics for Hydraulics Transients Simulation,” Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computers in Civil Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Baltimore, Maryland, pages 27-36, June 1980.

Harleman, D.R.F. and P. Shanahan, “Aspects of Wind-Driven Circulation and Mixing in Eutrophication Studies of Lake Balaton,” Proceedings of the Second Joint MTA/IIASA Task Force Meeting on Lake Balaton Modeling, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Veszprém, Hungary, Volume I, pages 50-66, August 27-30, 1979.

Shanahan, P., D.R.F. Harleman and L. Somlyódy, “Modeling Wind-Driven Circulation in Lake Balaton,” Collaborative Paper 81-7, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, February 1981.

Shanahan, P. and D.R.F. Harleman, Discussion of “Cells-in-Series Simulation of Riverine Transport” by H.G. Stefan and C. Demetracopoulos, ASCE Journal of the Hydraulics Division, Volume 108, Number HY5, pages 731-734, May 1982.

Shanahan, P. and D.R.F. Harleman, “Linked Hydrodynamic and Biogeochemical Models of Water Quality in Shallow Lakes,” Report Number 268, Ralph M. Parsons Laboratory for Water Resources and Hydrodynamics, Department of Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 279 pages, March 1982.

Shanahan, P. and D.R.F. Harleman, “Users Manual for the M.I.T. Lake Circulation Models (MITLAKE),” Technical Report 285, Ralph M. Parsons Laboratory for Water Resources and Hydrodynamics, Department of Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 47 pages, June 1982.

Somlyódy, L., editor, “Eutrophication of Shallow Lakes: Modeling and Management, The Lake Balaton Case Study,” Proceedings of a Workshop Organized by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, the Hungarian National Water Authority and the Hungarian Committee for Applied Systems Analysis, 29 August-3 September 1982, Veszprém, Hungary,

Collaborative Paper 83-S3, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, 1983.

Harleman, D.R.F. and P. Shanahan, “Hydrodynamic and Mass Transport Aspects of the Lake Balaton Models”

van Straten, G., P. Shanahan and L. Somlyódy, “State-of-the-Art Discussion on Eutrophication Modeling: Summary and Conclusions”

Shanahan, P. and D.R.F. Harleman, “Transport in Lake Water Quality Modeling,” ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, Volume 110, Number EE1, pages 42-57, February 1984.

Shanahan P. and D.R.F. Harleman, “A Linked Hydrodynamic and Biogeochemical Model of Eutrophication in Lake Balaton,” in Analysis of Ecological Systems: State-of-the-Art in Ecological Modeling, edited by W.K. Lauenroth, G.V. Skogerboe and M. Flug, Proceedings of Symposium held from 24 to 28 May, 1982, Fort Collins, Colorado, Sponsored by the International Society for Ecological Modelling, Elsevier Publishing Company, pages 837-843, 1983.

Shanahan, P., “Water Temperature Modeling: A Practical Guide,” Proceedings of the Stormwater and Water Quality Model Users Group Meeting, April 12-13, 1984, Detroit, Michigan, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Report EPA-600/9-85-003.

Shanahan, P., “Adaption of the USGS 3-D Ground Water Flow Model for Simplified Mass Transport Analysis,” Proceedings of the Eastern Regional Ground Water Conference, July 1984, Newton, Massachusetts. National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, 1984.

Shanahan, P. and D.R.F. Harleman, Discussion of “Phytoplankton Modeling in the Embayments of Lakes,” by J.-T. Kuo and R.V. Thomann, ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Volume 111, No. 1, pages 113-116, February 1985.

Somlyódy, L. and G. van Straten, editors, Modeling and Managing Shallow Lake Eutrophication with Application to Lake Balaton, Springer-Verlag, 1986. (ISBN 3-540-16227-5) Chapter 9, “Wind-Induced Water Motion” by P. Shanahan, D.R.F. Harleman and L. Somlyódy Chapter 10, “Lake Eutrophication Model: A Coupled Hydrophysical-Ecological Model” by P. Shanahan and D.R.F. Harleman

Shanahan, P. and D.P. Galya, “Mixing and Transport” (annual literature review), Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Volume 60, Number 6, pages 933-940, June 1988. Cosgrave, T., P. Shanahan, J.C. Craun and M. Haney, “Gradient Control Wells for Aquifer Remediation: A Modeling and Field Case Study,” Proceedings of the Solving Ground Water Problems with Models Conference, February 7-9, 1989, Indianapolis, Indiana. The Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers, Dublin, Ohio, 1989.

Shanahan, P. and D.P. Galya, “Mixing and Transport” (annual literature review), Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, Volume 61, Number 6, pages 924-931, June 1989. Shanahan, P. and S.C. Gaudet, “Mixing and Transport” (annual literature review), Research Journal of The Water Pollution Control Federation, Volume 62, Number 4, pages 546-555, June 1990.

Shanahan, P., “Mixing and Transport” (annual literature review), Research Journal of The Water Pollution Control Federation, Volume 63, Number 4, pages 536-543, June 1991.

Beard, T.C., C.J. Perry, T.C. Fox, T.G. Naymik, and P. Shanahan, “Iterative Approach to Groundwater Flow Modeling of the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS), under Consideration for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Storage in Clark County, Illinois”, Environmental Geology and Water Sciences, Volume 18, Number 3, pages 195-207, November 1991.

Henderson-Sellers, B., editor, Water Quality Modeling: Volume IV: Applications to Lakes and Reservoirs, CRC Press, 1991. (ISBN 0-8493-6974-6) Chapter 7, “Case Study of Lake Balaton, Hungary” by P. Shanahan, R.A. Luettich, Jr. and D.R.F. Harleman.

Shanahan, P., “Mixing and Transport” (annual literature review), Water Environment Research, Volume 64, Number 4, pages 514-523, June 1992.

Shanahan, P., “A Water-Quality History of the Blackstone River, Massachusetts, USA: Implications for Central and Eastern European Rivers,” Water Science and Technology, Volume 30, Number 5, pages 59-68, 1994. (Also published as Working Paper WP-94-31, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, May 1994.)

Shanahan, P., and L. Somlyódy, “Modeling the Impacts of Diffuse Pollution on Receiving Water Quality” in V. Novotny, editor, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, Water Quality Management Library, Volume 9. Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1995. (ISBN 1-56676-305-3) (Also published as Working Paper WP-95-2, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, January 1995.)

Shanahan, P., “Ground-Water Remediation and Modeling,” in V. Novotny and L. Somlyódy, editors, Remediation and Management of Degraded River Basins with Emphasis on Central and Eastern Europe. Springer-Verlag, New York. 1995. (ISBN 3-540-60115-5)

Shanahan, P., “The Changing Approach to Water-Quality Management in the United States,” Working Paper WP-96-62. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, June 1996.

Somlyódy, L., and P. Shanahan, “Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Central and Eastern Europe; Present Situation and Cost-Effective Development Strategies.” The World Bank, Washington, D.C. 1998. (ISBN 0- 8213-4085-9)

Bonas, A.R., I.D. MacFarlane, P. Shanahan, H.E. Dawson, and L.W. Gelhar. “The use of groundwater modeling to predict DNAPL transport.” Poster presented at The First International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California. May 18-21, 1998.

Shanahan, P., and L. Somlyódy, “Task Group progress on river water quality model.” Water Quality International, pages 56-57, June 1998.

Rauch, W., M. Henze, L. Koncsos, P. Reichert, P. Shanahan, L. Somlyódy, and P. Vanrolleghem, “River Water Quality Modelling: I. State of The Art,” Water Science and Technology, Volume 38, Number 11, pages 237-244, December 15, 1998.

Shanahan, P., M. Henze, L. Koncsos, W. Rauch, P. Reichert, L. Somlyódy, and P. Vanrolleghem, “River Water Quality Modelling: II. Problems of The Art,” Water Science and Technology, Volume 38, Number 11, pages 245-252, December 15, 1998.

Somlyódy, L., M. Henze, L. Koncsos, W. Rauch, P. Reichert, P. Shanahan, and P. Vanrolleghem, “River Water Quality Modelling: III. Future of The Art,” Water Science and Technology, Volume 38, Number 11, pages 253-260, December 15, 1998.

Hellweger, F., E. Naranjo, P. Shanahan, K. Fellows, G. Ostroff and P. Anid, “Screening-Level GIS Tools for Modeling Environmental Contamination from Mining Activities,” 19th Annual ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, California, July 26-30, 1999. (http://gis.esri.com/library/userconf/proc99/proceed/papers/pap964/p964.htm).

MacFarlane, I.D., J.E. Lige, A.R. Bonas, P.J.S. Colberg, E.J. Bouwer, and P. Shanahan, “Results of an Integrated Laboratory, Field, and Modeling Program to Demonstrate Natural Attenuation in a Low Redox Aquifer Impacted by Hydrocarbon DNAPL,” Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, October 25-28, 1999.

Lehr, J., editor, Standard Handbook of Environmental Science, Health and Technology, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 2000. (ISBN 0-07-038309-X)

Chapter 1, Section 5B, “Mixing and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Water” by P. Shanahan and S.C. Gaudet.

Chapter 24, Section 3, “Sensitive Environmental Systems, Alpine Lakes” by P. Shanahan.

Shanahan, P., D. Borchardt, M. Henze, W. Rauch, P. Reichert, L. Somlyódy, and P. Vanrolleghem, “River Water Quality Model No. 1: I. Modelling Approach.” Water Science and Technology. Vol. 43, No. 5, Pp. 1-10, 2001.

Reichert, P., D. Borchardt, M. Henze, W. Rauch, P. Shanahan, L. Somlyódy, and P. Vanrolleghem, “River Water Quality Model No. 1: II. Biochemical Process Equations.” Water Science and Technology. Vol. 43, No. 5, Pp. 11-30, 2001.

Vanrolleghem, P., D. Borchardt, M. Henze, W. Rauch, P. Reichert, P. Shanahan, and L. Somlyódy, “River Water Quality Model No. 1: III. Biochemical Submodel Selection.” Water Science and Technology. Vol. 43, No. 5, Pp. 31-40, 2001.

Reichert, P., D. Borchardt, M. Henze, W. Rauch, P. Shanahan, L. Somlyódy, and P. Vanrolleghem, River Water Quality Model No. 1. Scientific and Technical Report No. 12. ISBN 1 900222 82 5. IWA Publishing, London, England. 2001.

Lantagne, D., P. Gschwend, and P. Shanahan, “Point-Of-Use Water Filtration in Rural Haiti: “Trihalomethane Production and Factors for Program Success.” WEFTEC Latin America 2001, San Juan, Puerto Rico, November 11-14, 2001.

Shanahan, P., “Modelling advance for river quality.” Water21, Magazine of the International Water Association. Pp. 38-41. April 2002.

Oates, P.M., P. Shanahan, and M.F. Polz, “Solar Disinfection (SODIS) for Point-of-Use Water Treatment in Haiti and Simulation of Solar Radiation Global for Global SODIS Assessment.” Water Research. Vol. 37, No. 1, Pp. 47-54. January 2003.

Anderson, P.D., V.J. D’Aco, P. Shanahan, S.C. Chapra, M.E. Buzby, V.L. Cunningham, E.P. Hayes, B.M. DuPlessie, F. Mastrocco, N.J. Parke, J.C. Rader, J.H. Samuelian, and B.W. Schwab. “Screening Analysis of Human Pharmaceutical Compounds in U.S. Surface Waters.” Environmental Science & Technology. Vol. 38, No. 3, Pp. 838-849, February 01, 2004.

Novotny, Vladimir and Paul Brown, editors. Cities of the Future: Towards integrated sustainable water and landscape management. ISBN 1843391368. IWA Publishing, London, England. September 2007. “Ground Water and Cities” by Peter Shanahan and Bruce L. Jacobs.

Bras, R. L., F. Chagnon, E. E. Adams, J. Atkinson, O. Madsen, S. Murcott, U. Shamir, P. Shanahan, and L. Thatcher, 2007. Donald R. F. Harleman: A Life of Excellence and an Excellent Life. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE. Vol. 133, No. 11, Pg. 1187-1191. November 2007.

Durant, J.L., B. Jacobs, and P. Shanahan, “Historical Inputs of N-nitrosodimethylamine to the Public Drinking Water Supply in Wilmington, Massachusetts,” In: Roger W. Babcock, Jr. and Raymond Walton, editors, Proceedings of The World Environmental & Water Resources Congress, May 12-16, 2008, Honolulu, Hawai’i. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia.

Till, J., H. Grogan, L. Hay-Wilson, J. Rocco, A. Rood, B. Jacobs, and P. Shanahan, “Overview of Environmental Transport Models Contained in the Risk Analysis, Communication, Evaluation, and Reduction (RACER) Software Tools at Los Alamos National Laboratory,” WM2009: HLW, TRU, LLW/ILW, Mixed, Hazardous Wastes & Environmental Management, March 1-5, 2009, Phoenix, Arizona. (http://www.x-cd.com/wm/program/View_abstract.cfm?ID=9070)

Baker, L. A., Editor. 2009. The Water Environment of Cities. New York, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. “Groundwater in the Urban Environment” by Peter Shanahan “Principles for Managing the Urban Water Environment in the 21st Century” by Larry A. Baker, Peter Shanahan, and Jim Holway.

Hanson, L.S., R.M. Vogel, P. Kirshen, and P. Shanahan, “Generalized Storage-Reliability-Yield Relationships for Rainwater Harvesting Systems,” World Environmental & Water Resources Congress, May 17-21, 2009, Kansas City, Missouri.

Chua, Lloyd H. C., Peter Shanahan, Edmond Y. M. Lo, Eng Ban Shuy, Janelle Thompson, Cameron C. Dixon, Kathleen B. Kerigan, Jean Pierre Nshimyimana, Jessica M. Yeager, Li-Jun Lee, and Yu-Ling Por, 2010. Dry Weather Bacteria Monitoring and Variation with Land Use for Kranji Reservoir Catchment, Singapore. 17th Congress of the Asia and Pacific Division of the International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research, Auckland, New Zealand, February 21-24, 2010 (accepted).

Team 1

Ken Hickey

Ken Hickey is Vice President of HydroAnalysis, Inc. and has over 20 years of experience conducting surface water hydrologic and water quality investigations. He has successfully designed and conducted field investigations and modeling analyses of river, estuarine, and coastal systems. His work has resulted in quantification of pollutant sources, characterization of pollutant transport, development of mitigation actions, and restoration of surface water systems. Mr. Hickey specializes in developing and applying a wide range of hydrologic and water quality models, from simple to complex. Mr. Hickey has also conducted marine contaminated sediment and physical oceanographic investigations. He insightfully evaluates large, complex, environmental data sets and specializes in providing clear and compelling technical communication.


1992: M.S. Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati

1987: B.S. Electrical Engineering, University of Massachusetts

Professional History

2011-date: HydroAnalysis, Inc.

2007-2010: FB Environmental and independent water resources consulting

2006-2007: AMEC Earth and Environmental

1992-2006: ENSR Consulting and Engineering


Mr. Hickey has served as program manager, project manager, and/or technical area expert on a wide range of projects including under large contracts such as U.S. EPA Region 1 NPS and TMDL contracts (2004-present), water-related environmental monitoring of Boston’s Central Artery/Third Harbor Tunnel (Big Dig) project (1993-2006), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Environmental Services contracts (1996-present). He is equally adept a conducting smaller projects such as river wasteload allocations for municipalities, watershed management planning for watershed organizations, and water-related technical reviews for governmental and private clients.

Hickey, K, E. Bird, D. Galya. 2014. Review and Evaluation of BMP Tracking Systems for Assessing Nutrient Load Reductions in the Long Island Sound Watershed. Poster Session. New England Association of Environmental Biologists, 38th Annual Meeting, Burlington, Vermont. March 20-22, 2014.

Hickey, K., Carey, D. A., Germano, J. D., Read, L. B., Esten, M. E. 2013. Monitoring Survey at the Machias Bay Disposal Site October 2012. DAMOS Contribution No. 193. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, Concord, MA, 69 pp.

Carey, D., K. Hickey, P. Myre, L. Read, M. Esten. 2012. Monitoring Surveys at the Historical Brenton Reef Disposal Site 2007 & 2009. DAMOS Contribution 187. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England District. Concord, MA. 130 pp.

Groff, K., K. Hickey, B. Nuzzo, C. Dalton, K. Mullen. 2010. Assessing and Restoring Massachusetts Stormwater Impaired Watersheds: Making Optimal Use of Impervious Cover and Bioassessment Data Sets. 21st Annual Nonpoint Source Pollution Conference, May 17-19, 2010, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

Groff, K, K. Hickey, B. Nuzzo, C. Dalton, K. Davies. 2010. Development of Restoration Targets for Stormwater Impaired Watersheds Using Impervious Cover and Bioassessment Data. 7th Annual Massachusetts Water Resources Conference. April 8, 2010. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.

Hickey, K. P. Foss, S. Landry. 2009. Restoring Bacteria-Impaired Watersheds in New Hampshire. New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission 20th Annual Nonpoint Source Pollution Conference, May 18-20, 2009, Portland, Maine.

Hickey, K., S. Landry. 2009. Holistic Assessment and Mitigation of the Bacteria-impaired Furnace Brook Watershed. 2009 NH Joint Water and Watershed Conference, November 20-21, 2009, Concord, New Hampshire.

Devoid, J., K. Hickey. 2009. Use of a Watershed Model to Characterize and Prioritize Bacteria Sources for Mitigation in New Hampshire Coastal Beach Watersheds. New England Association of Environmental Biologists, 33th Annual Meeting, March 18-20, 2009, Westbrook, Connecticut.

Hickey, K., S. Stoodley, B. Berasi, B. Lennon. 2007. Use of Remote Sensing to Characterize Impervious Cover in Stormwater Impaired Watersheds. New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission 18th Annual Nonpoint Source Pollution Conference, May 21-23, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island.

Hickey, K., B. Lennon, B. Berasi, S. Stoodley. 2007. Estimating Agricultural Nutrient Loads to a Eutrophic Lake Using Remote Sensing and Watershed Modeling Tools. Massachusetts Water Resources Research Conference 2007, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. April 9, 2007.

Hickey, K., M. Kennedy, J. San Antonio. 2006. Use of the Impervious Cover Model for Developing TMDLs for Stormwater Impaired Streams. New England Association of Environmental Biologists, 30th Annual Meeting, March 29-31, 2006, Bethel, Maine.

Hickey K., S. Silva, M. Kennedy. 2005. Stormwater TMDL Innovations: Application of the Impervious Cover Method. EPA Region 1 Science Council Series Presentation. April 6, 2005, Boston, MA.

Hickey, K., M. Greenblatt, W. Gendron. 2005. Straightforward to Complex: An Overview of Approved Nutrient TMDL Modeling Applications. Lakes, Reservoirs, and Watersheds – Challenges and Opportunities. NALMS: 14th Annual Southeastern Lake Management Conference, Asheville, NC, April 13-15, 2005.

Hickey, K., K. Stecker, M. Greenblatt. 2005. Design of a Nutrient TMDL Allocation Project for the Reedy River. Lakes, Reservoirs, and Watersheds – Challenges and Opportunities. NALMS: 14th Annual Southeastern Lake Management Conference, Asheville, NC, April 13-15, 2005.

Hickey, K., K. Heim, D. Lewis. 2004. Design and Implementation of a Pathogen TMDL Study for the Sudbury River System. New England Water Environment Association 2004 Annual Conference and Exhibit. January 15-28, 2004, Boston, MA.

Greenblatt, M., K. Hickey, R. Isaac. 2003. Modeling Aquatic Biology: A TMDL Challenge. The 27th Annual Meeting of the New England Association of Environmental Biologists, March 26-28, 2003, Westminster, MA.

Hickey, K., D. Galya, M. Greenblatt, R. Isaac. 2002. A Quest for Appropriate Water Quality Metrics to Support a Nutrient TMDL Allocation. Water Environment Federation, National TMDL Science and Policy Conference, November 2002, Phoenix, AZ.

Hickey, K., R. Dunn, B. Mullen, S. Beede. 2001. Development of a Nutrient TMDL Study for the Assabet River System. New England Water Environment Association, NEWEA 2001 Annual Conference, January 28-31, 2001. Boston, MA.

Hickey, K., I. Morin, M. Greenblatt, G. Gong. 1999. Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of the Pictou Harbour Estuary in Nova Scotia. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, October 28 – Nov. 3, 1999, New Orleans, LA.

Morin, I, K. Hickey, and M. Greenblatt. 1999. Using GIS as an Interface for 3D Hydrodynamic Modeling. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, October 28 – November 3, 1999, New Orleans, LA.

Hickey, K. R. Calzada, G. DelVecchio. 1998. An Intermittent Stream Investigation of a Tidally Influenced Watershed in Northern Puerto Rico. American Water Resources Association Third International Symposium on Tropical Hydrology, July 12-16, 1998, San Juan, PR.

Mitchell, D., D. Cameron, K. Hickey, M. Gerath. 1997. Ecological Effects of Water Diversion on Headwater Ecosystem. Presentation to: 18th Annual Conference of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, November 16-20, 1997, San Francisco, CA.

Hickey, K., M. Gerath, J. Bowen, G. Gong. 1997. Design of Field Program and Use of Field Measurements to Calibrate a Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model of an Estuarine River System. Proceeding of the 5th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, October 22-24, 1997, Alexandria, VA.

Galya, D., J. Bleiler, K. Hickey. 1997. Monitoring Massachusetts Coastal Waters to Evaluate Potential Wastewater Discharge Impacts. Presented to: Coastal Zone '97, July 21-25, 1997, Boston, MA.

Gong, G., K. Hickey, M. Higgins. 1997. Hydrodynamic Flow and Water Quality Simulation of a Narrow River System Influenced by Wide Tidal Marshes. Presentation to: 5th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, October 22-24, 1997, Alexandria, VA.

Galya, D., J. Bleiler, K. Hickey. 1996. Outfall Monitoring Overview Report: 1994. MWRA Enviro. Quality Dept. Tech. Rpt. Series No. 96-04. Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, Boston, MA. 41 pp.

Uber, J.G., C. Bush, M. Fang, K. Hickey, and L. Rossman. 1995. Water Distribution Network Optimization Incorporating Fluid Flow and Chemical Transport. Water Resources Research.

Bowen, J.D., K. Hickey, and R. Zavistoski. 1995. An Investigation of How Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers Should Be Used to Calibrate Hydrodynamic Models. Presented to Fourth International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, San Diego, CA.

Ruffle, B., M. Gerath, and K. Hickey. 1994. Lead in Drinking Water: Uncertainty Analysis of Environmental Transport and Health Risk. Presented to Society of Risk Assessment, Baltimore, MD.

Wolf, L.J., J.D. Bowen, and K. Hickey. 1993. Dune Profiles Before and After Storm Events in Coastal Massachusetts. Proceedings of the National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, San Francisco, CA.

Uber, J.G., K. Hickey, M. Fang, and L. Rossman. 1992. Dynamic Plug Flow Network Model for Contaminant Transport in Water Distribution Systems. Proceedings of Water Forum '92, ASCE, Baltimore, MD.

Team 1

Emily DiFranco

Emily DiFranco is a Project Scientist for HydroAnalysis, Inc. with over eight years of experience. She specializes in conducting complex water quality investigations, bacteria source tracking surveys, and watershed planning projects. Ms. DiFranco has successfully conducted multiple stakeholder planning meetings and provides insightful and clear technical communication with clients. Ms. DiFranco received her M.S. in Natural Resources with a focus on Water Resources from the University of New Hampshire and a B.S. in Geography from McGill University in Montreal, Quebec.


2009: M.S. Natural Resource: Water Resources, University of New Hampshire

2001: B.S. Geography, McGill University

Professional History

2015-present: HydroAnalysis, Inc.

2010-2015: FB Environmental Associates

2007-2010: Water Resources Research Center: University of New Hampshire


Ms. DiFranco is a water resources scientist with over eight years of experience conducting and managing watershed-planning projects, complex water quality investigations, and targeted bacteria source tracking surveys.

  • River and Watershed Investigations: Develops comprehensive water quality assessment and monitoring projects for rivers, lakes, and estuaries.
  • Data Analysis and Interpretation: Evaluates large, complex environmental data sets, quickly recognizes important observations and trends, and provides insightful interpretive summaries.
  • Watershed Planning: Facilitates the development of EPA-approved, nine-element, watershed-based plans for water bodies throughout New England in collaboration with local, state, and federal governments and watershed associations. Tasks have included in-depth water quality analyses, municipal ordinance and permit compliance reviews, the development of stakeholder-driven action plans, and the organization and facilitation of multiple stakeholder meetings throughout the planning process.
  • Bacteria Source Tracking Investigations: Organizes bacteria source tracking projects to address bacteria impairments for communities throughout New England. Designs and implements bacteria sampling plans that utilize sampling, smoke and dye testing, and canine detection, among others and provides summary reports. Developed and facilitated seven bacteria source tracking workshops highlighting multiple methods throughout New England.
  • Water Resources Regulatory Compliance Projects and Reviews:  Conducts projects and reviews to ensure compliance with Clean Water Act (e.g., NPDES, TMDL), and other regulations.
  • Grant Implementation: Assists municipalities with the application and implementation of water quality assistance grants under Section 319 of the Clean Water Act.  Served as the lead technical contractor on multiple projects. Tasks have included grant writing, project management including budget and match tracking, attendance at Steering Committee meetings, design and implementation of residential and commercial BMPs, organization of and presentation at public education and outreach events, calculation of pollutant load reductions in response to BMPs, and the preparation of all deliverables and final reports to the state.
  • Clear and Straightforward Technical Communication.  Provides clear and concise communication featuring story-driven reports, compelling presentations, and a collaborative approach to work on a daily basis.  Specialize in conducting efficient, productive stakeholder meetings.

DiFranco, E.D., 2013 and 2014. Effective Bacteria Source Tracking. New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission Non-point Source Conference. Burlington, VT and Newport, RI.

DiFranco, E.D., 2014. Bacteria Source Tracking and Canine Detection. Maine Waters Conference. Augusta, ME.

DiFranco, E.D., 2014. Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination. Central Massachusetts Regional Stormwater Coalition Workshop. Boston, MA.

DiFranco, E.D. and Reynolds, K. 2014. Bacteria Source Tracking Workshop for RI Municipalities. Bristol, RI.

DiFranco, E.D. 2012 and 2014. Unique Tools to Protect Water Quality. New Hampshire Waters Conferenc.

DiFranco, E.D. 2013. Watershed Planning and Pollutant Source Tracking. New Hampshire Lakes Conference. Meredith, NH.

DiFranco, E.D. and Bell, F.B. 2012. Developing Watershed Plans. UNH New England NPS Tribal Workshop. Durham, NH.

DiFranco, E.D., and Bell, F.B. 2012. Protecting your Lakes Workshop for NH Lake Municipalities. Laconia, NH.

DiFranco, E.D. and Bell, F.B. 2012. Bacteria Source Tracking Workshop for NH Coastal Portsmouth, NH.

DiFranco, E.D. and McDowell, W.H. 2009. Hydrologic Assessment of a NH Air Force Base.

DiFranco, E.D. and McDowell, W.H. 2009. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Nitrous Oxide Concentrations in the Lamprey River Watershed in Durham, NH.

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